Lateralidad: qué es, los tipos y la afectación en el aprendizaje

La lateralidad: su desarrollo, niveles, tipos y afectación en el aprendizaje es fundamental para poder comprender algunas dificultades de los niños.

Tenemos dos hemisferios: el derecho y el izquierdo. El Sistema Nervioso está diseñado para que uno de los dos sea el dominante. Muchos pensarán que si no tienes hemisferio dominante puede ser una ventaja, ya que serás “doblemente” inteligente. Esto pasaba antiguamente cuando se consideraba que poder jugar al fútbol, por ejemplo, con las dos piernas era señal de mayor dotación.

Sin embargo, el Sistema Nervioso está diseñado para ser eficiente, es decir, rápido y exitoso.

Cuando la lateralidad está definida, se pueden dar respuestas más veloces ya que no hay tanta contrariedad ni lentitud en la respuesta. Hay un camino “directo” para resolver los problemas.

El desarrollo de la lateralidad

Cuando un bebé nace, no existe lateralidad, por eso es un error pensar que un niño puede ser diestro o zurdo porque use más una mano. Con el tiempo, y fruto del desarrollo, el niño pasa por una serie de etapas que llevan a definir su lateralidad.

Los niveles de lateralidad

Además, estamos equivocados si pensamos que ser diestro o zurdo solo marca con qué mano escribimos o chutamos el balón. Es mucho más que eso.

La lateralidad se encuentra en varios niveles: manual, podal, visual, auditiva y oral. En todos estos niveles, el cerebro tiene preferencia hacia un lado…¿O acaso no sueles masticar con un lado más que con otro?

Cuándo está definida la lateralidad 

Se necesitan los 7 primeros años de vida para que la lateralidad quede definida. Asimismo, no todos los niveles de lateralidad se definen al mismo tiempo. 

Influencia y afectación de la lateralidad

La lateralidad afecta, fundamentalmente, en el aprendizaje. Recordamos que la lateralidad ayuda a tener un cerebro eficiente. La falta de vías sensoriales y motoras llevando la información a un destino común produce dos cosas: cortocircuitos y lentitud.

  • Cortocircuitos: pérdida de información. Por eso vemos a niños con menos procesamiento, que retienen poca cantidad de información, rotan letras u omiten palabras. La información no llega limpia al cerebro.
  • Lentitud: otras veces, nos encontramos con que se necesita mayor tiempo para poder realizar las tareas. Para que la información quede unificada el coste de tiempo y de energía es mayor.

Tipos de lateralidad 

Los expertos describen cinco tipos de lateralidad:

 

  • Lateralidad homogénea: diestro o zurdo en todos los niveles.
  • Lateralidad Cruzada: cuando en uno de los niveles previamente mencionados la lateralidad está definida en el otro hemisferio. Por ejemplo: diestro con cruce visual.
  • Lateralidad sin definir: cuando la lateralidad no está definida por falta de maduración.
  • Zurdería contrariada: cuando una persona zurda escribe con la mano derecha por circunstancias educativas y ambientales.
  • Ambidiextro: cuando se puede usar indistintamente el lado derecho e izquierdo.

Tener claro la lateralidad de los niños es fundamental, para poder prevenir problemas de aprendizaje futuros y sobre todo, formar Sistemas Nerviosos más eficientes y regulados.

2 comentarios en “Lateralidad: qué es, los tipos y la afectación en el aprendizaje

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